aras river history
Except for Julfa, which is a communication, road, and rail center, they act mainly as markets for the produce of the area-principally tobacco, cotton, opium, cereals, and dried fruits. In fact, by March, 1946, the troops of the Western Allies were withdrawn, but the Russian ones did not leave till May. In 363 A.D. a peace treaty restored Armenia (including the Araxes) to Persia, but increasing Byzantine pressures in Armenia and elsewhere gradually led to increasing border attacks between the two empires. Seven new bird species were observed during the bird ringing activities in 2012 alone, including the raptor Shikra or Little Banded Goshawk (Accipiter badius), which was new to Turkey's avifauna.[9][10]. Minorsky, p. 142) was naturally significant, as was the trade in carpets and textiles (especially silks dyed with the crimson tincture of the qermez insect) and the production of salted fish (šūr-māhī) from the rivers and lakes. It is one of Turkey's two yearly active bird ringing stations. Folding has also occurred, but on a reduced scale. For millennia its valley formed a major thoroughfare for traders, armies and holy men. The river Aras has been associated with the biblical rivers Gihon and Pishon. 459; Ebn al-Aṯīr (repr. Under the Safavids. Some details are given by Balāḏorī of the pattern of Arab settlement in the towns over the first two centuries or so of Arab domination. 114-16; Bosworth, op. It was during the Rawwadid Vahsūdān’s reign that there arrived in Azerbaijan the first waves of the Oḡuz Turkmen, the so-called “ʿErāqī ones (from ʿErāq ʿAjamī, i.e., western Persia), formerly the followers of Arslān Esrāʾīl b. Saljūq, expelled from Khorasan in 419/1028 by the Ghaznavid Sultan Maḥmūd. Ḥoḏayfa was subsequently replaced by ʿOtba b. Farqad Solamī, who had to subdue the countryside of Azerbaijan, whilst the new governor appointed by the caliph ʿOṯmān, his kinsman Walīd b. The first one with 11 arches was built in the 11–12th centuries and the second with 15 arches in the 13th century. Rohl führt ein Dokument aus der Zeit der islamischen Invasion in Persien an, das die Bekanntheit des Aras unter dem Namen Gyhun bis ins 7. The Aras or Araxes is a river that starts in Turkey and then flows along the borders between Turkey and Armenia, between Turkey and the Nakhchivan area of Azerbaijan, between Iran and both Azerbaijan and Armenia, and finally through Azerbaijan to the Kura River. Once the base of Hamadān had been secured during the governorship in Kūfa of Moḡīra b. Šoʿba, the whole of northern Persia was laid open to attack. It was likewise Öljeytü (703-17/1304-17) who began construction of a new summer capital called Solṭānīya at a spot lying between Zanjān and Abhar, in a region of rich pasture, and this was completed in 713/1313 with many fine buildings, including the khan’s own tomb. 373-74, includes under the eqlīm al-Reḥāb Azerbaijan, Arrān, and Armenia, cf. Gibb, I, p. 108) was to describe it as the “Little Damascus” of ʿErāq ʿAjamī. The Aras in Poldasht District border region. (perhaps to be located at Taḵt-e Solaymān, to the southeast of Lake Urmia), was the local spiritual center of Zoroastrianism at the time of the Arab conquest, and the rights of the Zoroastrian community, as ahl al-ḏemma, to the free exercise of their religion were secured at that juncture (see below). The position of the province on the trade routes running north from Hamdān and Zanjān to Arrān and the Caucasus, and running westwards to Mosul and Āmed, gave it a commercial importance. There were nevertheless periods of peace, and the province developed commercially as a result of its position on the Trebizond-Tabrīz-central Persia communications and trade route. L. W. Alexander, “Iran-USSR Boundary,” International Boundary Studies 25, Department of State, Washington. 503-09). 166-67) were still further settled by Turkman elements belonging to such tribes as the Afšār, the Īnāllū, and Šāmlū, etc., making up the Safavids’ early backing of the Qezelbāš (q.v.). River located in and along the countries of Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran, "Araks" redirects here. Azerbaijan formed a separate province of the early Islamic caliphate, but its precise borders varied in different periods. 286ff. Also Samad Behrangi, an Iranian author of children's books, drowned in the River Aras. The first group appeared in 420/1029, and the Turkman mounted archers were taken into Vahsūdān’s service as auxiliaries for use against the Christians of Armenia and Georgia and against the rival Muslim family of the Kurdish Shaddadids of Ganja in Arrān and of Dvin. It is now called Kizil-Ozan, or Yellow River. Much of their time was spent combatting the resurgent forces of the Christian rulers of Armenia and Georgia, until in the reign of Abū Manṣūr Vahsūdān b. Mamlān (416-51/1025-59) a new element appeared in the politics of Azerbaijan which was to mark a decisive change in the ethnic complexion of the province, namely the Oḡuz or Ḡuzz Turks (see Madelung, op. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 30. Certainly, the whole Araxes valley and the towns along it—Baǰarvān in Moḡān, Ordūbād, and Julfa on the southern bend of the river, and the Armenian center of Naḵǰavān, Dvin, Erivan, Ani, and Avnīk in the upper reaches of the valley—saw much fighting in the medieval period. Ṭabarī, III, p. 1584), and in Kharejite activity spilling over from Jazīra at times. Etwa in dieser Gegend bildet der Fluss zugleich die Grenze zu Armenien. A. Miquel, Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrefat al-aqālīm (La meilleure répartition pour la connaissance des provinces), Damascus, 1963, p. 318. The river Aras has been associated with the biblical rivers Gihon and Pishon. Mose 2,11) bei der Beschreibung des Garten Edens als einen der vier aus dem Garten strömenden Flüsse nennt. Under the early ʿAbbasids, northern Azerbaijan was the epicentre of the prolonged and dangerous rebellion against the caliphate led by Bābak Ḵorramī, which affected much of northwestern Persia and which lasted over twenty years, from ca. Marzobān extended his military power as far as Dvin in Armenia, finally capturing and jailing Daysam just before his own death in 346/957, and he fought off attempts by the Arab Hamdanids of Mosul to invade Azerbaijan. The name was later Hellenized to Araxes and was applied to the Kura-Araxes culture, a prehistoric people who flourished in the valleys of the Kura and Aras. James Todd[13] writes that the origin of the Scythic nations, as related by Diodorus; when it will be observed the same legends were known to him which have been handed down by the Puranas and Abulghazi. [6] Robert H. Hewsen described Aras as the only "true river" of Armenia and as "Mother Araxes," a symbol of pride to the Armenian people. Azerbaijan formed a separate province of the early Islamic caliphate, but its precise borders varied in different periods. The former may have been the Phasis or Araxes, and the latter the Oxus." The northwestern Zagros, of which the Araxes basin forms a major part, comprises a series of massive rock structures chiefly Upper Cretaceous, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene in geological age. In 1971 a first barrage to regulate the runoff of the Aras was finished near the Iranian village of Qezel Qešlāq (close to the Soviet city of Nakhichevan/Naḵǰavān), creating a lake of 145 km2 in size with a storage capacity of 1.35 billion m3. We need not take seriously Moqaddasī’s assertion (p. 375) that Azerbaijan had seventy languages, a state of affairs more correctly applicable to the Caucasus region to the north; but the basically Iranian population spoke an aberrant, dialectical form of Persian (called by Masʿūdī al-āḏarīya) as well as standard Persian, and the geographers state that the former was difficult to understand. The transit traffic in slaves (Greek, Armenian, Pecheneg, Khazar, and Ṣaqlābī, i.e., Slav and Ugrian ones, according to the Ḥodūd al-ʿālam, par. The Aras rises near Erzurum in Turkey and meets with the Akhurian River southeast of Digor. In Turkey, the Ghareso river flows in from the North, and the Akhurian, Metsamor, Hrazdan, Azat, Vedi, Arpa, Vorotan, Voghdji and Meghri rivers join in from the Armenian (North) side. Its total length is 1,072 kilometres (666 mi), covering an area of 102,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi). ISBN 0-312-10169-4. This supports a considerable population living in grouped and scattered villages; and the greenness of the fields, and the orchards, poplars and willows which line the irrigation ditches give the villages of the valley an air of prosperity which contrasts sharply with the bleak highlands, and semi-desert around the Moḡān steppe, which can only be used as seasonal grazing ground for animals. April 2020 um 18:24 Uhr bearbeitet. [4], In modern history, the Aras gained significance as a geographic political boundary. Das privat finanzierte Unternehmen hat seinen Firmensitz in Andover (Massachusetts), USA, sowie eine Europazentrale in Solothurn, Schweiz. 60-75. Von seiner Quelle verläuft er in Richtung Osten, wobei er den Berg Ararat nördlich passiert. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.If you enter several tags, separate with commas. Duncan, George S. (October 1929) "The Birthplace of Man", "Afrikalı atmaca Türkiye'de halkalandı", "Aras Nehri'ndeki Kuşlara ABD'den El Uzattı", Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски. cit.) 2647-50, 2660-62). Armenian Prelacy. It further remained the second city of Persia as the seat of the walīʿahd or heir to the throne, with his own court circle, and was always more open than other centers to European and outside influences and ideas. Armenia: Past and Present. When the Jacobite Maphrian or head of the church in the Persian lands, the celebrated Barhebraeus, died at Marāḡa in 1286, local Nestorians, Melkites, and Armenians joined with the Jacobites in mourning him. It was also vulnerable, as a populous and fertile valley area—Abū Dolaf, loc. ), VIII, pp. [1], In modern history, the Aras gained significance as a geographic political boundary. Die Aras Corporation ist ein amerikanischer Softwarehersteller für Enterprise Open Source PLM-Anwendungen (Product-Lifecycle-Management). They sailed up the Kor, defeated Marzobān’s forces, and sacked and occupied Barḏaʿa; it is unclear whether Ardabīl also suffered, although this seems probable (Meskawayh, Tajāreb II, pp. 112-14). In Armenian tradition, the river is named after Arast, a great-grandson of the legendary Armenian patriarch Haik. The Mašu Dağ is one of these ranges, narrow but high, separating the Araxes basin from the closed basin of the Urmia lake sump. Under the terms of the Treaty of Gulistan and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the river was chosen as the border limit between the Russian Empire and Qajar Iran, as the latter was forced to cede its Caucasian territories to Russia. A. Birken, Die Provinzen des osmanischen Reiches, Wiesbaden, 1976, p. 172); only the eastern part remained in Persian hands, being ruled from Ardabīl. History. [citation needed], The Zangmar, Sariso, Ghotour River, Hajilar River, Kalibar River, Ilghena River, Darreh River and Balha River are the major tributaries of the Aras from the south (right). Iran V, pp. Später ist er Grenzfluss zwischen dem Iran und der aserbaidschanischen Exklave Nachitschewan sowie weiterhin zwischen dem Iran und Armenien bzw. Thus under Maḥmūd b. Moḥammad (511-25/1118-31), Maḥmūd’s brother Ṭoḡrel held Qazvīn, Daylam, Gīlān, and Arrān, whilst another brother, Masʿūd (subsequently sultan 529-47/1134-52), was malek of Azerbaijan, Mosul, and Jazīra. The formerly numerous fire temples of Azerbaijan led many Arabic authorities to explain the name of the province itself as meaning something like “fire temple” (e.g., Yāqūt [Beirut], I, p. 128: “fire-keeper” > “fire temple”). Under the Mongols. From here eastward the river is entirely within Soviet territory, where it is joined by a major tributary, the River Kor, that rises in the highlands of the Caucasus.

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