Electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies, being used for: Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Atomic Energy Act of 1954 allows private ownership of nuclear reactors. , Long before any knowledge of electricity existed, people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Boulder (Hoover) Dam was completed. Thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, which is equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is typically measured in volts. The first working transistor, a germanium-based point-contact transistor, was invented by John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain at Bell Labs in 1947, followed by the bipolar junction transistor in 1948.
The concept of electric potential is closely linked to that of the electric field. His work with AC motors and alternating current (AC) is well known and respected. The Leyden jar stored and released electrical charge. In 1887, Heinrich Hertz:843–44 discovered that electrodes illuminated with ultraviolet light create electric sparks more easily. California Electric Light Company, Inc. in San Fransicso was the first electric company to sell electricity to customers. Even though in the next couple hundred years we see scientists beginning to understand electricity a little more, it wasn’t until the late 1800s that the most progress and application took place. The building material is most often a crystalline semiconductor.. In engineering or household applications, current is often described as being either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC).
The time-averaged value of an alternating current is zero, but it delivers energy in first one direction, and then the reverse.
Some organisms, such as sharks, are able to detect and respond to changes in electric fields, an ability known as electroreception, while others, termed electrogenic, are able to generate voltages themselves to serve as a predatory or defensive weapon. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Soon afterwards, electrical stations in major cities began to spring up.  This phenomenon is known as piezoelectricity, from the Greek piezein (πιέζειν), meaning to press, and was discovered in 1880 by Pierre and Jacques Curie.
The pain caused by an electric shock can be intense, leading electricity at times to be employed as a method of torture.  Faraday's disc was inefficient and of no use as a practical generator, but it showed the possibility of generating electric power using magnetism, a possibility that would be taken up by those that followed on from his work.
 Common solid-state MOS devices include microprocessor chips and semiconductor memory. Electronic devices make use of the transistor, perhaps one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century, and a fundamental building block of all modern circuitry. He had discovered static electricity.
 The masters of electricity, whether fictional or real—including scientists such as Thomas Edison, Charles Steinmetz or Nikola Tesla—were popularly conceived of as having wizard-like powers. The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible and electronics is widely used in information processing, telecommunications, and signal processing. Thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, which is equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is typically measured in volts.
Optical fibre and satellite communication have taken a share of the market for communications systems, but electricity can be expected to remain an essential part of the process. They left that responsibility to the staff. Electricity is used within telecommunications, and indeed the electrical telegraph, demonstrated commercially in 1837 by Cooke and Wheatstone, was one of its earliest applications.
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